It’s a disease of the immune system that affects different parts of the human body. Chronic inflammation occurs in the joints and connective tissues, causing swelling and severe pain.
Rheumatism is caused by a dysfunction of the immune system. Instead of protecting the body against the bacteria or viruses that attack it, the immune system is wrong by attacking the connective tissues of the joints and other organs of the human body such as the lungs, skin, eyes, heart and blood vessels.
In bones and deformities of the joints, in severe cases, rheumatism causes a physical and functional disability of the patient.
Types of rheumatism
Rheumatism is divided into two types:
Non-inflammatory diseases, where joint erosion occurs without inflammation of surrounding tissues, including degenerative bone erosion and osteoporosis.
Inflammatory diseases affect bones, joints, and muscles and are divided into two types:
- Non-articular inflammatory diseases: connective tissues and muscles, including scleroderma, systemic lupus erythematosus, Schugren’s syndrome, and other diseases.
- Arthritis: affects the joints and surrounding tissues, such as rheumatoid arthritis, gout, rheumatic fever, rheumatism, rheumatoid arthritis, Cushing’s syndrome, and other diseases.
Acute articular rheumatism
It is a type that occurs suddenly after tonsillitis and is caused by a streptococcus associated with certain symptoms, including:
- General weakness and loss of appetite.
- It causes inflammation of the peripheral membrane of the heart and is the most dangerous because it can lead to rheumatism or heart failure.
- The size of the joint is usually larger, swollen and red in color, and the painful touch of the patient. The most affected joints are knees, wrists, elbows, and ankles.
- Inflammation affects the nervous system, leading to Sydenham’s chorea, where rapid, asymmetrical and irregular vibratory movements occur and, in severe cases, to the muscles of the arms, legs, and feet. Some tasks, such as controlling the pen input while writing and the ability to speak correctly.
- Sometimes a red rash appears two to four weeks after strep streptococcal infection.
Causes of rheumatism
Rheumatism is caused by the immune system that attacks the tissues surrounding the joints, but scientists have not yet been able to determine the cause of this imbalance in the immune system.
- Gender: The incidence of women was higher than that of men.
- Age: Although rheumatism can occur at any age, it is more common among 40 to 60-year-olds.
- Genetic background: The presence of a person with rheumatism increases the likelihood of relatives being related.
- A bacterial or viral infection, such as rheumatic fever.
- Continuous exposure to cold and humidity.
There is no definitive treatment for rheumatism, but the symptoms of the disease are lessened and the course of the disease is reduced by the use of different drugs such as painkillers and cortisone, as well as by to the patient new methods for performing daily activities and assistive devices to reduce pressure on joints and bones.
In rheumatic fever, treatment is concentrated in the rest of the bed during the active phase of the disease and the patient stays in bed until the heat subsides and also reduces arthritis and heart.
The patient is then invited to move gradually, in addition to the drug treatment.
- Penicillin or antibiotics are used to eliminate inflammatory bacteria such as rheumatic fever. There are leftovers of streptococcal bacteria. Phenoxymethylpenicillin is used. It is administered orally at 250 milligrams every 6 hours a day or at 500 milligrams every 12 hours for 10 days. In case of allergy to penicillin, antagonists of erythromycin or tetracycline are used.
- Aspirin: The rheumatic patient receives 3 g / day divided into several doses, the patient with rheumatic fever receives 80 mg/kg/ day in four equal doses and not more than 6.5 grams per day. After one week, the dose is reduced to 60-70 mg/kg. Aspirin is very effective in treating this disease.
- Cortisone: It reduces inflammation and pain and slows the deterioration of the condition of joints and tissues. The patient receives 60 to 120 milligrams a day, divided into four doses until the symptoms of the disease subside and the red blood cell deposits return to normal. The dose is not interrupted abruptly. They are gradually reduced over a period of two weeks.